Bangladesh has mostly flat alluvial plain with hilly land in the east and southeast region. It’s climate is tropical including mild winter (October to March); hot and humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October). A subtropical monsoon climate with wide seasonal variations in rainfall, moderately warm temperatures, and high humidity are very common in Bangladesh.
Wind blows from the north and northwest in the winter, gently at one to five kilometers per hour in northern and central areas and three to ten kilometers per hour near the coast. Violent thunderstorms with up to sixty kilometers per hour winds are common during March to May. During the early summer and late monsoon season, southerly winds of more than 160 kilometers per hour cause waves to crest as high as 6 meters in the Bay of Bengal, which turns into severe flooding to coastal areas.
Bangladesh has a large surface water bodies in the form of the major Padma (Ganges), Jamuna (Brahmaputra) and Meghna Rivers and their tributaries. These originate from the Himalaya and northern India. The land is mainly a flat-lying alluvial plain with hill country in the southeast (Chittagong Hill Tracts). Elevation varies from 1230 m in Keokradong (south-east) to sea level (BGS 2001). Much of the land is within 5 to 6 m of mean sea level.